Pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in birds

  • R. Houben
  • S. Croubels
  • A. Watteyn
  • G. Antonissen


Inflammation is a protective response to infection and/or tissue damage and it induces migration of immune cells and mediators of immune response from the circulation to the infected and/or damaged tissue. This response will remove the initial noxe (e.g. lipopolysaccharide or LPS) and tissue healing will be stimulated. LPS is part of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and causes an inflammatory response in birds due to its proinflammatory properties. As a result to this inflammatory response, birds develop a change in body temperature, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, show leukocytosis and sickness behavior. The magnitude of these symptoms in birds depends on the bird species and differs from the symptoms in mammals. The characteristics and pathophysiology of an inflammatory response are frequently studied using LPS inflammation models. These models can further be applied for pharmacodynamic studies to assess the clinical effect of different anti-inflammatory drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. In this paper, an overview of the LPS-induced inflammatory response in birds is given.

How to Cite:

Houben, R. & Croubels, S. & Watteyn, A. & Antonissen, G., (2017) “Pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in birds”, Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 86(3), 136-147. doi:

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Published on
27 Jun 2017
Peer Reviewed