Author Guidelines

The maximal length for articles is 7500 words (including endnotes); reviews count between 1000 and 2500 words.


The article should be preceded by an abstract of about 250300 words and  57 keywords.


Texts should be in a 11-point font, left-aligned and single-spaced. Try to divide your text in paragraphs of moderate length.


Use no more than one level of subtitles.


British spelling should be used throughout, e.g. prefering ‘ise’ over ‘ize’.


Quotations are put between single quotation marks, only using double marks for quotations within quotations. Use no marks for quotations exceeding fifty words, but instead include them as a separate, indented block of text. Square brackets announce author comments (‘[sic]’) or any modification of the original quotation (‘[…]’).


Use single spaces. Punctuation marks (other than brackets, dashes or quotation marks) are never preceded by a space.


Give dates in full, for example ‘1 February 1995’. In notes, however, dates should be abbreviated, for example ‘1/2/1995’. Years span are indicated in full with an (unspaced) en dash, for instance: 19431945, and not: 194345. Do not use apostrophes in decades, use: ‘1930s’, instead of ‘1930’s’.


Numbers under 101 and all multiples of hundred, thousand, million etc. should be spelt out, with the exception of percentages. In numbers of four figures or more, commas should be used. Decimals are punctuated with a full point.


Words originally written in characters other than Latin should be converted as to make them intelligible for all readers. Offer translations where needed.


Names of cities and towns can be given in their original language. When giving a place of publication in references, however, they should be translated in English.


For emphasising and for non-English words and concepts use italics only rather than underlining the word or using apostrophe’s or quotation marks. For example: Realpolitik, Risorgimento, Duma, Heimat; instead of Realpolitik, “Risorgimento”, ‘Duma’, 'Heimat' or any other style combinations.


First names should be given in full and not as an initial, and this whenever a person is first mentioned. Unless mistakes are possible, use only last names further on.


Avoid the use of abbreviations, with the exception of titles and organisations (for example UNPO, UDB, PM …)


A spaced em dash will be used to mark a break in a sentence, and a pair can be used to set off a parenthetical statement (a subsentence). For example: ‘Glitter, felt, yarn, and buttons — his kitchen looked as if a clown had exploded’ and A flock of sparrows — some of them juveniles — alighted and sang’.


Use an (unspaced) en dash:


  • To indicate spans or differentiation. This may include ranges such as those between dates, times or numbers. For instance: June–July 1967; 1:15–2:15 p.m., For ages 3–5; pp. 38–55; President Jimmy Carter (1977–1981).


  • To contrast values or illustrate a relationship between two things, such as: Radical–Unionist coalition, mother–daughter relationship, Boston–Hartford route.


  • In compound (phrasal) attributes in which one or both elements is itself a compound, especially when the compound element is an open compound, meaning it is not itself hyphenated. For example: Pre–Civil War era, non–self-governing, public-school–private-school rivalries,  pro-conscription–anti-conscription debate.

Use a hyphen:


  • To join two or more words to form a compound. For example: public-school, seven-year-old , German-occupied territory, well-being, Nazi-administered, Soviet-controlled, left-aligned, single-spaced.


  • With the prefixes all-, ex-, pro-, anti-, self-, non-, and with the suffix -elect. Such as: all-inclusive, All-Union Communist Party, ex-president, pro-life, anti-Jewish, self-determination, non-English words, governor-elect.


  • With all compound numbers between twenty-one through ninety-nine, and when writing fractions as words.




SNM uses endnotes (at the end of the article) and not footnotes.


Endnote numbers (superscript) are always placed at the end of a sentence, after the full stop. For example:  […] national identity at the time.4 and not […] national identity at the time4. Another example, following a quote, the order will be: quotation mark, period and superscript. Thus: ‘[…] people’.17 and not ‘[…] people17.’ or ‘[…] people.17’ or ‘[…] people.’17


SNM uses the 'MHRA' referencing style: See


Some specificities for SNM referencing:


Author's first names in endnotes are given in full and not as an initial whenever a person is first mentioned. Unless mistakes are possible, use only last names further on.


When a book, an article or journal has already been mentioned, use an abbreviated title for the subsequent times.


Page numbers are indicated by the number or numbers only, or the range of pages linked with an (unspaced) en dash (SNM does not use “p.” or “pp.”).  


Editorial houses are indicated at the end of the endnote, but before the page number(s), between brackets, mentioning the publication place(s) -separated by a ‘/’-, double point, editorial house, and year. Example: (West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2016); or (London/ Glasgow: Glasgow University Press, 2019), 26–38.


Examples of SNM endnotes:


BOOK. First reference:


Joanna Michlic, Poland's Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 2006), 111–117, 126–128.


Christoph Mick, Lemberg, Lwów, L’viv, 1914–1947: Violence in a Contested City (West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2016).



           Subsequent reference: 

           Mick, Lemberg, Lwów, L’viv, 260.

Articles in edited volumes:

Fabrizio Rasera & Camillo Zadra, ‘Patrie Lontane. La Coscienza Nazionale negli Scritti dei Soldati Trentini (1914–1918)’, in Sui Campi di Galizia (1914–1917). Gli Italiani d’Austria e il Fronte Orientale: Uomini, Popoli, Culture nella Guerra Europea, ed. by Gianluigi Fait (Rovereto / Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 1997), 317–358 (335). 

           Subsequent reference:

           Rasera, 'Patrie Lontane', 345.



Article in a journal:

John Regan, ‘Southern Irish Nationalism as a Historical Problem’, The Historical Journal 50/1 (2007), 197–223 (199–201).

          Subsequent reference:

          Regan, 'Southern Irish', 221–222.


For further examples of endnotes check the ones of the previous SNM issue:



Reference Archival Items

> City, archival institution, collection number/name, place within collection: description, date.


First reference:

Antwerp, ADVN|Archief voor nationale bewegingen [ADVN], AC528 Algemeen Nederlands Zangverbond, D13316: Letter from Van Elslande to Van den Bossche, 19/4/1963.



Subsequent references:


ADVN, AC528, D13369: Minutes, 15/4/1976.

Review section (reference to book reviewed)

Caspar Hirschi, The origins of nationalism. An alternative history from ancient Rome to early modern Germany (Cambridge - New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011) xiv + 242 pp., ill., ISBN 9780521764117.


The ISAD(G) standards are to be used.