China’s defeat against British military forces in the Opium War (1839–1842) heralded a quest for a Chinese modernity of its own. That China’s modernity is, in the contemporary period, conspicuously formulated in terms that refer to the country’s imperial past, shows how China’s national consciousness is permeated with the mission to rectify the trauma of the 19th century. The present contribution describes the impact of this historical trauma on how China positions itself in the world.
Chinese Communist Party, 'All-under-heaven', Grand strategy, Beld and Road initiative, 'Rejuvenation of the Chinese nation'
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