Multi-agency working (MAW) has increasingly been considered a promising approach to preventing violent radicalisation, allowing early and effective identification of individuals who may be at risk of violent radicalisation, and breaking down historical silos between agencies. This article provides an overview of the MAW approaches in the context of violent radicalisation in three countries: Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany. Although these countries are neighbouring, the MAW approach is very different in each, in terms of legislation (e.g., on information sharing), structure (e.g., level of organisation, key actors), procedures (e.g., case management) and goals (e.g., target groups, role and function). There does not seem to be one general MAW approach in the field. This article identifies the goals, partnership, governance, information sharing, and other issues that can strengthen local MAW approaches. Through the ‘Evaluation and Mentoring of the Multi-Agency approach to violent radicalisation’ (EMMA) project, the question ‘What works under what conditions?’ will be assessed in each country by means of a realist process evaluation. As part of the project, a practical self-evaluation tool is being developed for local officials that will be widely applicable across different MAW approaches in Europe.
Prevention, Multi-agency, Violent Radicalization, Extremism, Terrorism